This is a public service of the University of California. Social psychologist Stanley Milgram researched the effect of authority on obedience.
He concluded people obey either out of fear or out of a desire to appear cooperative--even when acting against their own better judgment and desires. Milgram recruited subjects for his experiments from various walks in life. Respondents were told the experiment would study the effects of punishment on learning ability.
They were offered a token cash award for participating. Although respondents thought they had an equal chance of playing the role of a student or of a teacher, the process was rigged so all respondents ended up playing the teacher.
The learner was an actor working as a cohort of the experimenter. In reality, the only electric shocks delivered in the experiment were single volt shock samples given to each teacher. This was done to give teachers a feeling for the jolts they thought they would be discharging.
Shock levels were labeled from 15 to volts. Besides the numerical scale, verbal anchors added to the frightful appearance of the instrument. Beginning from the lower end, jolt levels were labeled: Severe Shock," and, past that, a simple but ghastly "XXX.
Eventually, in desperation, the learner was to yell loudly and complain of heart pain. At some point the actor would refuse to answer any more questions.
Finally, at volts the actor would be totally silent-that is, if any of the teacher participants got so far without rebelling first. Teachers were instructed to treat silence as an incorrect answer and apply the next shock level to the student. If at any point the innocent teacher hesitated to inflict the shocks, the experimenter would pressure him to proceed.
Such demands would take the form of increasingly severe statements, such as "The experiment requires that you continue.
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What percentage of teachers, if any, do you think went up to the maximum voltage of ? Results from the experiment. Some teachers refused to continue with the shocks early on, despite urging from the experimenter.
This is the type of response Milgram expected as the norm. But Milgram was shocked to find those who questioned authority were in the minority.
Participants demonstrated a range of negative emotions about continuing. Some pleaded with the learner, asking the actor to answer questions carefully. Others started to laugh nervously and act strangely in diverse ways. Some subjects appeared cold, hopeless, somber, or arrogant.
Some thought they had killed the learner. Nevertheless, participants continued to obey, discharging the full shock to learners. One man who wanted to abandon the experiment was told the experiment must continue.
Less obedience was extracted from subjects in this case. In another variation, teachers were instructed to apply whatever voltage they desired to incorrect answers.The Stanley Milgram Experiment was created to explain some of the concentration camp-horrors of the World War 2, where Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, Slavs and other enemies of the state were slaughtered by Nazis.
There are many reasons why employees of Enron or other such companies might have supported or tolerated the unethical practices. Milgram’s experiment does shed light on one of these reasons, but. Enron and the Milgram Experiment The Milgram experiment The Milgram Experiment Experiment was carried out by Stanley Milgram at Yale University.
Lots were drawn to find out who would be the 'learner', and who would be the 'teacher'. the experimenter acted as the authoritative figure. Enron Following Milgram Experiment. The Milgram Experiment Stanley Milgram, a famous social psychologist, and student of Solomon Asch, conducted a controversial experiment in , investigating obedience to authority ().
Enron Following Milgram Experiment. The Milgram Experiment Stanley Milgram, a famous social psychologist, and student of Solomon Asch, conducted a controversial experiment in , investigating obedience to authority ().
Milgram and Accounting Ethics 1 Teaching Ethics in the Accounting and Tax Curriculum Using Milgram’s Agentic Shift Theory In the s and early s, Stanley Milgram conducted a series of.