In this essay on the water crisis, we will discuss the importance of water in our daily life and how people are misusing it in our country. The source to get water, problems of people of interior Sindh and Balochistan, as well as Indian basin treaty, will also be discussed in Water Crisis Essay. Without water, life in this world is impossible. Water gives life and energy to everything.
There are substitutes for oil, but not for water. We drink on average four litres of water per day, in one form or another, but the food we eat each day requires 2, litres of water to produce, or times as much.
Getting enough water to drink is relatively easy, but finding enough to produce the ever-growing quantities of grain the world consumes is another matter. Grain consumed directly supplies nearly half of our calories.
That consumed indirectly as meat, milk, and eggs supplies a large part of the remainder. It thus comes as no surprise that irrigation expansion has played a central role in tripling the world grain harvest over the last six decades. During the last half of the twentieth century, the world's irrigated area expanded from close to m acres m hectares in to roughly m in This near tripling of world irrigation within 50 years was historically unique.
In looking at water and our future, we face many questions and few answers. Could the world be facing peak water? Or has it already peaked? Farmers get their irrigation water either from rivers or from underground aquifers.
Historically, beginning with the Sumerians some 6, years ago, irrigation water came from building dams across rivers, creating reservoirs that then enabled them to divert the water on to the land through a network of gravity-fed canals. This method of irrigation prevailed until the second half of the 20th century, where with few sites remaining for building dams, the prospects for expanding surface irrigation faded.
Farmers then turned to drilling wells to tap underground water resources. In doing so, they learned that there are two types of aquifers: Tapping underground water resources helped expand world food production, but as the demand for grain continued climbing, so too did the amount of water pumped.
Eventually the extraction of water began to exceed the recharge of aquifers from precipitation, and water tables began to fall. And then wells begin to go dry. In effect, overpumping creates a water-based food bubble, one that will burst when the aquifer is depleted and the rate of pumping is necessarily reduced to the rate of recharge.
Today some 18 countries, containing half the world's people, are overpumping their aquifers. During the last couple of decades, several of these countries have overpumped to the point that aquifers are being depleted and wells are going dry. They have passed not only peak water, but also peak grain production.
In these countries peak grain has followed peak water. Nowhere are falling water tables and the shrinkage of irrigated agriculture more dramatic than in Saudi Arabiaa country as water-poor as it is oil-rich.
After the Arab oil export embargo inthe Saudis realised they were vulnerable to a counter-embargo on grain. To become self-sufficient in wheat, they developed a heavily subsidized irrigated agriculture based heavily on pumping water from fossil aquifers.
After being self-sufficient in wheat for over 20 years, the Saudis announced in early that, with their aquifers largely depleted, they would reduce wheat planting by one-eighth each year untilwhen production would end.
By then Saudi Arabia projects it will be importing some 15m tonnes of wheat, rice, corn and barley to feed its 30 million people. It is the first country to publicly project how aquifer depletion will shrink its grain harvest.
Syria, a country of 22 million people riddled by civil war, is also overpumping its underground water. It, too, is becoming heavily dependent on imported grain.
In neighboring Iraq, grain production has plateaued over the last decade.
In it was dependent on the world market for two-thirds of its consumption. In addition to aquifer depletion, both Syria and Iraq are also suffering from a reduced flow in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers as upstream Turkey claims more water for its own use.Food Adulteration Essay.
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The chronic food shortage is worsened by a lack of storage facilities and the difficulty of accessing the numerous remote communities in the country.
Rapid population growth Rapid population growth in LDCs results in food shortage. Mr Khan said wasting food has enormous social and environmental implications including a shortage of food for vulnerable communities and also leads to a hike in food prices.
The world is facing a future of food shortages and mass migration as a consequence of widespread water shortages caused by global warming, the outgoing head of the World Meteorological Society has.