On it were written three options:
American opinions[ edit ] The American military Kamikaze planes many of the A6M's unique attributes when they recovered a largely intact specimen of Kamikaze planes A6M2, the Akutan Zeroon Akutan Island in the Aleutians.
During an air raid over Dutch Harbor on June 4,one A6M fighter was hit by ground-based anti-aircraft fire. Koga died instantly of head injuries his neck was broken by the tremendous impactbut the relatively-undamaged fighter was Kamikaze planes over a month later by an American salvage team and was shipped to Naval Air Station North Islandwhere testing flights of the repaired A6M revealed both strengths and deficiencies in design and performance.
The A6M's airframe was "built like a fine watch"; the Zero was constructed with flush rivetsand even the guns were flush with the wings.
The instrument panel was a "marvel of simplicity The Japanese method was much slower, but resulted in a very strong structure and improved close maneuverability. While stable on the ground despite its light weight, the aircraft was designed purely for the attack role, emphasizing long range, maneuverability, and firepower at the expense of protection of its pilot.
Most lacked self-sealing tanks and armor plating.
The Zero had ruled the roost totally and was the finest fighter in the world until mid It first flew on 1 April, and passed testing within a remarkably short period.
By September, it had already been accepted for Navy testing as the A6M1 Type 0 Carrier Fighter, with the only notable change being a switch to a three-bladed propeller to cure a vibration problem.
Mitsubishi had its own engine of this class in the form of the Kinseiso they were somewhat reluctant to use the Sakae. Nevertheless, when the first A6M2 was completed in Januarythe Sakae's extra power pushed the performance of the Zero well past the original specifications.
The new version was so promising that the Navy had 15 built and shipped to China before they had completed testing. They arrived in Manchuria in Julyand first saw combat over Chungking in August. There they proved to be completely untouchable by the Polikarpov Is and Is that had been such a problem for the A5Ms when in service.
In one encounter, 13 Zeros shot down 27 Is and Is in under three minutes without loss. After hearing of these reports, the navy immediately ordered the A6M2 into production as the Type 0 Carrier Fighter, Model Reports of the Zero's performance filtered back to the US slowly.
There they were dismissed by most military officials, who thought it was impossible for the Japanese to build such an aircraft.
After the delivery of the 65th aircraft, a further change was worked into the production lines, which introduced folding wingtips to allow them to fit on aircraft carriers. When the lines switched to updated models, Model 21s had been completed by Mitsubishi, and another by Nakajima.
Two other versions of the Model 21 were built in small numbers, the Nakajima-built A6M2-N "Rufe" floatplane based on the Model 11 with a slightly modified tailand the A6M2-K two-seat trainer of which a total of were built by Hitachi and the Sasebo Naval Air Arsenal.
A prototype Zero with the new engine was first flown on July 15, The cowling was redesigned to enlarge the cowl flaps, revise the oil cooler air intake, and move the carburetor air intake to the upper half of the cowling.
The wings also included larger ammunition boxes and thus allowing rounds per cannon. On the downside, turning and range, which were the strengths of the Model 21, suffered due to smaller ailerons, decreased lift and greater fuel consumption. The shorter range proved a significant limitation during the Solomons Campaign, during which Zeros based at Rabaul had to travel nearly to their maximum range to reach Guadalcanal and return.
Soon after, it was realized that it was simply a new model of the "Zeke" and was termed "Zeke 32". This variant was flown by only a small number of units, and only were built. A6M3 Type 0 Model 22[ edit ] In order to correct the deficiencies of the Model 32, a new version with folding wingtips and redesigned wing was introduced.
More important, it regained back its capabilities for long operating ranges, similar to the previous A6M2 Model 21, which was vastly shortened by the Model However, before the new design type was accepted formally by the Navy, the A6M3 Model 22 already stood ready for service in December Approximately aircraft of the new type had been produced in the meantime by Mitsubishi Jukogyo K.
While the engine cowling is the same of previous Model 32 and 22, the theory proposes that the plane is an early production Model Some researchers believe "A6M4" was applied to one or two prototype planes fitted with an experimental turbo-supercharged Sakae engine designed for high altitude.
It shows a turbo unit mounted in the forward left fuselage. Lack of suitable alloys for use in the manufacture of a turbo-supercharger and its related ducting caused numerous ruptures, resulting in fires and poor performance. Consequently, further development of a turbo-supercharged A6M was cancelled.
The lack of acceptance by the navy suggests that the navy did not bestow model number 41 or 42 formally, although it appears that the arsenal did use the designation "A6M4".
The prototype engines nevertheless provided useful experience for future engine designs. A6M5c Zeros preparing to take part in a kamikaze attack in early Sometimes considered as the most effective variant,  the Model 52 was developed to again shorten the wings to increase speed and dispense with the folding wing mechanism.
In addition, ailerons, aileron trim tab and flaps were revised.Most kamikaze planes were ordinary fighters or light bombers, usually loaded with bombs and extra gasoline tanks before being flown deliberately to crash into their targets.
A piloted missile was developed for kamikaze use that was given the nickname “ Baka ” by the Allies from the Japanese word for fool. report by the USS Ticonderoga concerning hits by two Kamikazes on Jan 27, Did You Know?
In and Kublai Khan, the Mongol emperor of China, sent out great fleets to conquer Japan. Providential storms dispersed the fleets on both occasions and reinforced the Japanese belief that their gods would forever protect them.
Provides list of names of 47 ships sunk by kamikaze aircraft during World War II. Also includes analysis of sources that provide numbers different than Picket Duty - 2nd Edition Kamikaze Attacks Against U.S.
Destroyers - Okinawa solitaire game design by Steve Dixon: MSRP $ Post Release Price $ + shipping. The Mitsubishi A6M "Zero" is a long-range fighter aircraft formerly manufactured by Mitsubishi Aircraft Company, a part of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy from to The A6M was designated as the Mitsubishi Navy Type 0 carrier fighter (零式艦上戦闘機, rei-shiki-kanjō-sentōki), or the Mitsubishi A6M Rei-sen.