This dissertation consists of three independent studies of health inequalities. Each study examines a different source of inequality and focuses on a particular health outcome. The first study investigates inequalities in old-age morbidity between Palestinians and Jews in Israel.
Lower supervisors, craft and related 1. Employees in semi-routine occupations 1. Employees in routine occupations.
Infant mortality is a useful indicator when assessing health inequalities, because of its sensitivity to social conditions. Infant mortality has decreased greatly over the last century. Infant mortality rates in social class V are double, those in social class 1.
Information provided by OHN states, that babies with fathers in social class 4 and 5 have a birth weight that is on average grams lower than that of babies with fathers in classes 1 and Moon and Gillespie, During their non-working hours they are 'couch potatoes ' who do no exercise and they also fail to use preventive services, such as antenatal care and screening OHN claims that breastfeeding decreased the incidence and severity of many infections of infancy and it protects against respiratory illnesses.
The Black Report Black et al. Mothers who smoke increase the risk of cot death to their babies.
Barker believes that improving breast-feeding rates of those in lower socio-economic groups will be of a great benefit to the health of their children and that there is a clear need to develop policies to improve the health of future mothers and their children.
Barton and Bloor, And the occurrence of fires in the home is fifteen times higher again for lower socio-economic groups. Drinking is an important factor in accidents, it is estimated that 40, deaths each year could be alcohol related.
The graph below shows that mortality from injury and poisoning accidents in children aged years by social class in England in Wales is The incidence and mortality rates in the most deprived groups for both men and women are around twice those of the more affluent and the ten major cancers share marked adverse social gradients by social class.
Research suggests that one third of all cancers are the result of a poor diet. If the incidence of those cancers in people in all deprivation categories were as low as those in the most affluent then it is estimated that 20, fewer cases of these cancers would be diagnosed each year.
This could when using the behavioural explanation explain why lower socio-economic incidents and mortality from lung cancer are higher.
Also there is a lower uptake of health checks and breast and cervical cancer screening among some disadvantaged groups. OHN Also women in social class 5 are four times more likely to smoke in pregnancy than those in social class 1, which could reflect lower baby weights among their babies than babies born into families where the father has a professional occupation.
Those in the lower socio-economic groups spend more on foods richer in energy, high in fat and sugar, which are cheaper per unit of energy than food rich in protective nutrient such as fruit and vegetables.
This may help to explain obesity variations in social class. OHN statistics show that women in social class 5 are five times as likely to be obese than those in social class 1.
A further statistic that may be related to obesity is that among lower socio-economic groups unskilled workers are two and a half times less likely to participate in sports than professionals.: There is evidence to suggest that the 'mortality gap', between those at the top and those at the bottom may be increasing.
Of all long-standing illnesses in the percentage of professionals was However it tends to ignore the social and cultural context in which individual behaviour is located. It also tends to 'blame the victims' by focusing on explaining inequalities of health in terms of peoples bad behaviour, whilst ignoring the many reasons why people are often forced to behave in certain ways.
The Black Report on 'Inequalities in Health' published in took a different approach to explaining inequalities in health.
The report stressed the emphasis of material conditions of life and factors outside the NHS. When the results of the Acheson inquiry were made available inthey not only confirmed the analysis of the Black Report, they also found that in some respects inequalities had widened.
She states that individuals may choose to buy white bread rather than healthier brown bread, because white bread is cheaper and many people cannot access supermarkets where food is of a more healthy nature, such as organic products.The essay will interpret inequalities in health among the sub-populations of socio-economic class position, geographical location, gender and ethnicity, using relevant data from 'Our Healthier Nation' (OHN), 'Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation' (SLOHN) and the Health and Lifestyles Survey.
HEALTH INEQUALITIES INTRODUCTION. The aim of this essay is to compare and contrast different sociological perspectives of health and illness.
The definition of health, rather than being absolute is always relative and it differs from person to person. Essay on The Usefulness of â€œthe Sociological Imaginationâ€ in Relation to Gender, Social Inequality and Suicide The Usefulness of “The Sociological Imagination” in Relation to Gender, Social Inequality and Suicide Sociological imagination is the “quality of mind” (Mills, p.
The editors' thoughtful, clear introductory essay acknowledges the intellectual and political history of health inequalities research, and sketches the developments and debates within which the chapters are located.
The Black report confirmed that economic barriers to medical services were not the cause of inequalities in health outcomes. Sociology Inequalities in Health and Illness Essay Task 3 – Inequalities in Health and Illness (P3,M2,D1) Gender (P3) - Mortality rates: In gender men generally die earlier than women because of many aspects of their life, for instance in general women tend to take care of them self more physically.
Sociology Inequalities in Health and Illness Essay Sample. Mortality rates: In gender men generally die earlier than women because of many aspects of their life, for instance in general women tend to take care of them self more physically.
A lot of women go on diets and a lot of exercise DVDs and detunes are mainly aimed at women.