Aristotle was the first philosopher to define the term thesis. The purpose of the dissertation is thus to outline the proofs of why the author disagrees with other philosophers or the general opinion. Structure[ edit ] A thesis or dissertation may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a monographwith or without appended papers, respectively, though many graduate programs allow candidates to submit a curated collection of published papers.
Dictionaries are the main reference works for our understanding of language.
They are used by humans and likewise by computational methods. So far, the compilation of dictionaries has almost exclusively been the profession of expert lexicographers.
The ease of collaboration on the Web and the rising initiatives of collecting open-licensed knowledge, such as in Wikipedia, caused a new type of dictionary that is Thesis wiktionary created by large communities of Web users.
This collaborative construction approach presents a new paradigm for lexicography that poses new research questions to dictionary research on the one hand and provides a very valuable knowledge source for natural language Thesis wiktionary applications on the other hand.
The subject of our research is Wiktionary, which is currently the largest collaboratively constructed dictionary project. In the first part of this thesis, we study Wiktionary from the metalexicographic perspective. Metalexicography is the scientific study of lexicography including the analysis and criticism of dictionaries and lexicographic processes.
To this end, we discuss three contributions related to this area of research: Our results show that the traditional phases of the lexicographic process do not apply well to Wiktionary, which is why we propose a novel process description that is based on the frequent and continual revision and discussion of the dictionary articles and the lexicographic instructions.
We conclude the metalexicographic perspective by finding that the collaborative Wiktionary is not an appropriate replacement for expert-built dictionaries due to its inconsistencies, quality flaws, one-fits-all-approach, and strong dependence on expert-built dictionaries.
However, Wiktionary's rapid and continual growth, its high coverage of languages, newly coined words, domain-specific vocabulary and non-standard language varieties, as well as the kind of evidence based on the authors' intuition provide promising opportunities for both lexicography and natural language processing.
In particular, we find that Wiktionary and expert-built wordnets and thesauri contain largely complementary entries.
In the second part of the thesis, we study Wiktionary from the natural language processing perspective with the aim of making available its linguistic knowledge for computational applications.
Such applications require vast amounts of structured data with high quality. Expert-built resources have been found to suffer from insufficient coverage and high construction and maintenance cost, whereas fully automatic extraction from corpora or the Web often yields resources of limited quality.
Collaboratively built encyclopedias present a viable solution, but do not cover well linguistically oriented knowledge as it is found in dictionaries.
That is why we propose extracting linguistic knowledge from Wiktionary, which we achieve by the following three main contributions: A particular challenge in this process is the ambiguity of semantic relations and translations, which we resolve by automatic word sense disambiguation methods.
The largely complementary information from the two dictionaries yields an aligned resource with higher coverage and an enriched representation of word senses. This standardized representation is of great importance for fostering the interoperability of resources and hence the dissemination of Wiktionary-based research.
To this end, our work presents a foundational step towards the large-scale integrated resource UBY, which facilitates a unified access to a number of standardized dictionaries by means of a shared web interface for human users and an application programming interface for natural language processing applications.
A user can, in particular, switch between and combine information from Wiktionary and other dictionaries without completely changing the software. Our final resource and the accompanying datasets and software are publicly available and can be employed for multiple different natural language processing applications.
It particularly fills the gap between the small expert-built wordnets and the large amount of encyclopedic knowledge from Wikipedia. We provide a survey of previous works utilizing Wiktionary, and we exemplify the usefulness of our work in two case studies on measuring verb similarity and detecting cross-lingual marketing blunders, which make use of our Wiktionary-based resource and the results of our metalexicographic study.She's writing her thesis on the effects of TV on children.
(countable) A thesis is a main idea or argument that is developed or explained. This book has three major theses. A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.
In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is normally applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true.
May 25, · This page was last edited on 25 May , at Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike . A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.
In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is normally applied to a doctorate, while in . In the second part of the thesis, we study Wiktionary from the natural language processing perspective with the aim of making available its linguistic knowledge for computational applications.
Such applications require vast amounts of structured data with high quality. Noun: ·The plural form of thesis; more than one thesis.